The recently appointed head of UK intelligence agency GCHQ Robert Hannigan has called for an overhaul of legal tools to help security and law enforcement agencies counter internet-enabled extremists.
In turn, intelligence agencies such as GCHQ need to enter the public debate about privacy, Hannigan wrote in the Financial Times (FT).

Just days into the job, he reiterated recent calls by his predecessor Iain Lobban, FBI director James Comey and European Cybercrime Centre head Troels Oerting for better tools to do their jobs.
Hannigan said large US tech firms have become the “command and control networks of choice” for terrorists and criminals, who have found online services as transformational as everyone else.
The only way to meet this challenge, he said, is coming up with better arrangements for facilitating lawful investigation by security and law enforcement agencies.
At the same time, intelligence agencies like GCHQ need to enter the debate about privacy and show they are accountable for the data they use to protect people, according to Hannigan.
He said while GCHQ is happy to be part of a mature debate on privacy in the digital age, the debate should not become a reason for postponing “urgent and difficult decisions”.

Newly installed director of the National Security Agency (NSA) Michael Rogers has signalled a similar approach in the US at a recruitment drive at Stanford University.
Like his GCHQ counterpart, Rogers called for a broader dialogue about what privacy means in the digital age, reports CNet.com
Hannigan said UK security agencies need support from large US tech firms in light of the fact extremist groups in Syria and Iraq have embraced the web.
He backed the call by saying: “The challenge to governments and their intelligence agencies is huge – and it can only be met with greater co-operation from technology companies.”
GCHQ has come under strong criticism since US whistleblower Edward Snowden revealed in 2013 the agency had powerful online surveillance capabilities.
Public outcry has led to attempts by most large US tech firms to distance themselves from government surveillance and launch privacy enhancements for online services.

Isis has embraced the web as a noisy channel in which to promote itself, intimidate people and radicalise new recruits
Robert Hannigan, GCHQ

Hannigan lamented that “techniques for encrypting messages or making them anonymous, which were once the preserve of the most sophisticated criminals or nation states, now come as standard”.
Making a call for greater support from tech firms, he said these services increasingly host violent extremism or child exploitation content and facilitate crime and terrorism.
He also said Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (Isis) is exploiting the internet in new ways.
“Where Al-Qaeda and its affiliates saw the internet as a place to disseminate material anonymously or meet in dark spaces, Isis has embraced the web as a noisy channel in which to promote itself, intimidate people and radicalise new recruits,” wrote Hannigan.
Security minister James Brokenshire recently met with representatives from tech firms – including Google, Microsoft and Facebook – in Luxembourg to discuss ways to tackle online extremism, reports the BBC.
Analysts said Hannigan has wasted no time in wading into the debate over security and privacy, and has made it clear he will not shy away from a fight.
Hannigan took over from Lobban on 1 November 2014 after serving as director general for defence and intelligence at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office since 2010.
He was appointed by foreign secretary William Hague in April 2014 after a recruitment process which was open to crown and civil servants.
Deal needed between democratic governments and tech firms
Hannigan concluded his FT article by saying as the world celebrates the 25th anniversary of the worldwide web, a new deal between democratic governments and the technology companies is needed.
“It should be a deal rooted in the democratic values we share. That means addressing some uncomfortable truths. Better to do it now than in the aftermath of greater violence,” he said.
Facebook rules already state organisations with a record of terrorist or violent criminal activity are not allowed to maintain a presence on the social network or post content in support of terrorist groups.
The firm has declined to make an official statement, but said it already works with law enforcement agencies and will disclose information either in good faith if it will prevent harm or in response to a court order, reports The Telegraph.
Other US tech firms, including Google, Twitter and Microsoft declined to comment, the paper said.

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