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CPU hardware implementations are vulnerable to cache side-channel attacks.

These vulnerabilities are referred to as Meltdown and Spectre.
TLS implementations may disclose side channel information via discrepancies between valid and invalid PKCS#1 padding,and may therefore be vulnerable to Bleichenbacher-style attacks..

This attack is known as aROBOT attackquot;.
Apple MacOS High Sierra fails to properly require authentication for disabled accounts,such as root account,which can allow an authenticated user to obtain root privileges.
Install Norton Security for Mac,prior to version 7.6,does not validate SSL certificates.
Microsoft Windows 8 introduced a change in how system-wide mandatory ASLR is implemented.

This change requires system-wide bottom-up ASLR to be enabled for mandatory ASLR to receive entropy.

Tools that enable system-wide ASLR without also setting bottom-up ASLR will fail to properly randomize executables that do not opt in to ASLR.
Microsoft Equation Editor contains a stack buffer overflow,which can allow a remote,unauthenticated attacker to execute arbitrary code on a vulnerable system.
The P1735 IEEE standard describes methods for encrypting electronic-design intellectual property(IP),as well as the management of access rights for such IP.

The methods are flawed and,in the most egregious cases,enable attack vectors that allow recovery of the entire underlying plaintext IP.
Implementations of IEEE P1735 may be weak to cryptographic attacks that allow an attacker to obtain plaintext intellectual property without the key,among other impacts.
Savitech provides USB audio drivers for a number of specialized audio products.
Some versions of the Savitech driver package silently install a root CA certificate into the Windows trusted root certificate store.
The Infineon RSA library version 1.02.013 does not properly generate RSA key pairs,which may allow an attacker to recover the RSA private key corresponding to an RSA public key generated by this library.

This vulnerability is often cited asROCAin the media.
Wi-Fi Protected Access(WPA,more commonly WPA2)handshake traffic can be manipulated to induce nonce and session key reuse,resulting in key reinstallation by a wireless access point(AP)or client.

An attacker within range of an affected AP and client may leverage these vulnerabilities to conduct attacks that are dependent on the data confidentiality protocols being used.

Attacks may include arbitrary packet decryption and injection,TCP connection hijacking,HTTP content injection,or the replay of unicast and group-addressed frames.

These vulnerabilities are referred to as Key Reinstallation Attacks orKRACKattacks.
The NXP Semiconductors MQX RTOS prior to version 5.1 contains a buffer overflow in the DHCP client,which may lead to memory corruption allowing an attacker to execute arbitrary code,as well as an out of bounds read in the DNS client which may lead to a denial of service.
Dnsmasq versions 2.77 and earlier contains multiple vulnerabilities.