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Ars Technica Live: What to do when border officials ask for...

Law professor Ahmed Ghappour tells us about changing rights at the US border.

How to succeed in online investigations and digital forensics

Maltego, the tool best known for deep data mining and link analysis, has helped law enforcement, intelligence agencies and others in security-related work since it was released in 2008.

To benefit from using Maltego, come to SAS 2017 for intensive Digital Intelligence Gathering training from the experts who created the tool from scratch: there won’t be any questions that they can’t answer.

Mississippi AG Jim Hood sues Google—again

Enlarge / Mississippi Attorney General Jim Hood (R) at a news conference in 2015.Alex Wong/Getty Images reader comments 34 Share this story Mississippi Attorney General Jim Hood is sparring with Google once more. Last year, Hood and Google wound down a court dispute over Hood's investigation into how Google handles certain kinds of online content, from illegal drug ads to pirated movies.

E-mails from the 2014 Sony hack showed that Hood's investigation was spurred on, in part, by lobbyists from the Motion Picture Association of America. Now Hood has a new bone to pick with the search giant. Yesterday, Hood filed a lawsuit (PDF) against Google in Lowndes County Chancery Court, saying that the company is gathering personal data on students who use Google's G Suite for Education, (previously called Google Apps for Education). In a statement, Hood said that "due to the multitude of unclear statements provided by Google," his investigators don't know exactly what information is being collected. "Through this lawsuit, we want to know the extent of Google's data mining and marketing of student information to third parties," Hood said. "I don't think there could be any motivation other than greed for a company to deliberately keep secret how it collects and uses student information." The complaint claims that through a child's educational account, "Google tracks, records, uses and saves the online activity of Mississippi's children, all for the purpose of processing student data to build a profile, which in turn aids its advertising business." That gives Google an unfair edge over its competitors and violates Mississippi consumer protection law, say state lawyers. More than half of Mississippi schools use Google products, according to Hood's office. A Google spokesperson declined to comment on the matter. Google said that it stopped collecting any student data for advertising purposes in 2014. In an interview with the Jackson Clarion-Ledger, Hood explained one investigative technique his office used.

The investigators logged on to a laptop with a student's educational e-mail address and password and made some queries on YouTube.

Then they logged out, went to a different browser, and logged in again. "It started shooting ads at us dealing with the same query that that child had put in.
So we knew that they were tracking that child," Hood told the Clarion-Ledger. Hood's concerns mirror those from an Electronic Frontier Foundation complaint over Google Apps for Education, filed with the Federal Trade Commission in late 2015.

That complaint pointed out that Google Chrome's "Sync" feature was enabled by default on educational laptops, meaning that Google could track, store, and data-mine student Internet use, although not for advertising purposes. As of last month, the FTC had yet to take action on the EFF complaint.

Facebook, Google face strict EU privacy rules that could hit ad...

EnlargeGetty Images/Urich Baumgartgen reader comments 4 Share this story Online messaging services such as WhatsApp, Skype, and Gmail face a crackdown on a "void of protection" that allows them to routinely track the data of EU citizens without regulatory scrutiny—and it could be bad news for ad sales. On Tuesday, officials in Brussels proposed new measures to curb Silicon Valley players who—up until now—have been largely immune from the ePrivacy Directive, which  requires telecoms operators to adhere to the rules on the confidentiality of communications and the protection of personal data. As part of its planned overhaul, the European Commission, the executive wing of the European Union, said that it planned to beef up the measures by switching from a directive to a "directly applicable regulation" to ensure that the bloc's 500 million citizens "enjoy the same level of protection for their electronic communications." It claimed that businesses would also benefit from "one single set of rules." Over-The-Top services such as Facebook's WhatsApp and Google's Gmail can all but ignore the EU's existing rules.

The commission said that this needed to change: Important technological and economic developments took place in the market since the last revision of the ePrivacy Directive in 2009.

Consumers and businesses increasingly rely on new Internet-based services enabling inter-personal communications such as Voice over IP, instant messaging, and Web-based e-mail services, instead of traditional communications services... Accordingly, the Directive has not kept pace with technological developments, resulting in a void of protection of communications conveyed through new services. The EC is also planning to kill the heavily ridiculed cookies consent pop-up system.
It said, in an embarrassing—if long overdue—climbdown that users would be given more control to allow or prevent websites from tracking them depending on "privacy risks." Last summer, a big coalition of tech firms lobbied for the cookie law to be scrapped. Under the new proposal, the commission said: "no consent is needed for non-privacy intrusive cookies improving Internet experience (e.g. to remember shopping cart history).

Cookies set by a visited website counting the number of visitors to that website will no longer require consent." But it could also hit the bottom line of Facebook, Google, and chums because tracking consent may be harder to obtain if lots of users reject third party cookies.

The commission said that, following public consultation on the issue, 81.2 percent of citizens agreed that obligations should be imposed on "manufacturers of terminal equipment to market products with privacy-by-default settings activated." It also warned that "additional costs" could hit some Web browser makers because they would be required to develop software with privacy settings built in. The new proposals also call on consent to process electronic communications metadata, such as device location data to allow for the "purposes of granting and maintaining access and connection to the service," the commission said.
It means that telcos "will have more opportunities to use data and provide additional services." Translation: new ways to make more cash. Companies that flout confidentiality of communications rules face fines of up to four percent of their global annual turnover, under the commission's planned e-privacy measures—the same penalty that will be dished out to firms that violate the EU's General Data Protection Regulation, which comes into action in April 2018. "The European data protection legislation adopted last year sets high standards for the benefit of both EU citizens and companies," said EC justice chief Věra Jourová. "Today we are also setting out our strategy to facilitate international data exchanges in the global digital economy and promote high data protection standards worldwide." But the latest proposals cannot become law until the bloc's 28 member states and the European Parliament agree to wave them through—leaving plenty of wiggle room for industry lobbying. Separately, the commission is seeking views from the public on how to best tackle data mining as part of its Digital Single Market strategy. This post originated on Ars Technica UK

5 key technologies to double down on now

With digital transformation dominating the business agenda, IT pros are under pressure to create a modern-day tech foundation sturdy enough to drive that change as they head into 2017. What milestones are they aiming for in the year ahead? Where should they direct their limited resources? According to Computerworld’s Forecast 2017 survey, IT professionals will prioritize security, analytics, XaaS or “as a service” technology, virtualization and mobile apps in the coming year.
If you’re thinking of adding those technologies to your own 2017 to-do list, read on for findings from our survey, along with real-world advice from other IT leaders. 1.
Security High-profile corporate data breaches, politically charged cyberattacks like those against the Democratic National Committee (DNC), and the October DDoS attack that took down much of the internet have kept security front and center this year, prompting many in IT to ramp up strategies and add layers to their lines of defense. In Computerworld’s Forecast 2017 survey, 47 percent of the 196 IT professionals polled said they plan to increase spending on security technology in 2017, and 14 percent chose security as the most important technology project currently underway at their organizations. Moreover, 15 percent of those surveyed said they expect security to be their top leadership challenge over the next 12 months, and another 15 percent said they’re currently beta-testing enterprise security technologies.

Even those not pursuing specific security initiatives have security on their minds: 19 percent of the respondents said their primary goal for their most important project is “to meet security, privacy or compliance goals.” At Global Strategy Group, a New York-based public affairs and political research firm, security is always a priority, but it’s at the very top of the list this election year. “As a firm that works with the DNC, security has always been a top thought, but when it becomes front page news, everyone is looking at it,” says Andrew Ho, the firm’s vice president of technology.

Global Strategy plans to tighten things up over the coming year with tools like single sign-on and multifactor authentication, but Ho says it’s really less about the technology and more about changing employee behavior. “We’re definitely looking at new technology, but it’s 70 percent about the culture,” he says. “It’s about changing people’s behavior and thinking through the psychology of what really gets hacked.
It’s not necessarily about a stronger firewall, but about people realizing they can’t do things like use the same passwords for everything.” Hiring more people to confront security challenges is another common tactic. Of the Forecast survey respondents expecting to add new employees this year, 30 percent said the reason was to bolster security initiatives, with 26 percent of them saying they anticipate new hires in the areas of security, compliance and governance. They might have trouble finding qualified talent, however: One-quarter of the survey respondents with hiring plans ranked security as the most difficult skill to hire for. 2.

Analytics As companies double down on their efforts to get closer to customers, data has taken on critical importance, with analytics serving as a springboard for success. Organizations are stockpiling data on web traffic, customer preferences, buying behavior, real-world product performance and more, creating a potential gold mine of insights—if they adopt the right strategy and use the right analytics tools to make sense of everything they collect. Some 38 percent of survey respondents said they plan to increase spending on data analytics (a category that includes big data, enterprise analytics, data mining and business intelligence tools) next year, and data analytics was No. 4 on the list of technology projects that respondents cited as their organizations’ most important initiatives. Moreover, 21 percent of respondents said their organizations are engaged in a beta test of a big data project, and nearly 30 percent pegged big data/analytics as the disruptive technology most likely to impact their organization over the next three to five years. In Edmonton, Alberta, the city government has made analytics an organizational focus for 2016 and 2017.

The plan, currently underway, is to build a federated-style data warehouse linked to data marts, leveraging big data tools like Tableau for visualization. “The goal is to break down barriers and let previously siloed information be available and useful to others to enable better decision-making,” says Bruce Rankin, service support lead for the municipal government’s Spatial Centre of Excellence. Global Strategy Group’s Andrew Ho It’s a similar story at Global Strategy Group. Over its 20-year history, the firm has collected tons of data on elections, and it’s using analytics to identify trends, says Ho. The next step is to take open technologies like R, a programming language tuned for statistical computing, and visualization capabilities like Tableau and remake static PowerPoint presentations into something dynamic that can reflect trends in polling. “We want to put an iPad in front of a client, change a variable here or there, and see how the trends change,” he says. “It’s a practice we started this year.” 3. XaaS Another year in and there’s no stopping the cloud computing juggernaut, especially as companies retool IT infrastructure for digital transformation. The “as a service” trend continues to gain traction, with 33 percent of survey respondents reporting that their organizations are planning to increase spending on software-as-a-service (SaaS) offerings next year, putting SaaS at No. 5 on the list of respondents’ most important technology projects. At the same time, 24 percent of those polled said they intend to spend more on platform-as-a-service (PaaS) technologies and 27 percent said they will put more money toward infrastructure as a service (IaaS) in 2017.

And finally, 29 percent of respondents expect cloud or SaaS systems to be the disruptive technology that has the most impact on their business over the next three to five years. As interest in hosted systems gains steam, 13 percent of the respondents said they’re beta-testing SaaS offerings, while 12 percent are taking PaaS for a spin and 8 percent are piloting IaaS. With all of that cloud activity underway, IT leaders are looking to expand their teams’ skill sets: 26 percent of survey respondents who plan to increase head count in the next 12 months said they intend to hire people with cloud and SaaS skills, putting cloud/SaaS expertise at No. 5 on the list of skills they’re seeking. Roche Bros., a 20-store Boston-area grocery chain, is moving as much of its infrastructure and applications as possible to the SaaS model, says John Lauderbach, the company’s vice president of IT. Human resources applications, sign and tag printing systems, backup and recovery tools and even mainstream productivity applications have all been moved to the cloud, helping to reduce costs and provide better reliability and 24/7 availability, according to Lauderbach. “We are four people [in IT], so for us to manage servers, facilitate patches and do backup and recovery work is a lot,” he says. “There are people who do this for a living who can do it better than we can.” 4. Mobile apps As smartphones and tablets become standard fare for consumers and employees alike, IT groups are racing back to the drawing board to retool existing applications to be mobile-friendly while creating new mobile apps to court customers and gain competitive advantage. In our Forecast 2017 survey, 35 percent of those polled said they plan to increase spending on mobile systems next year. Nearly 10 percent said they’re beta-testing mobile apps, while 21 percent of those with hiring plans said they hope to add people with mobile application and device management skills. Mott Community College’s Cheryl Shelton Mott Community College in Flint, Mich., has a mobile app to facilitate student services, but it’s also in the process of revamping its website to make it more mobile-friendly.
Students want access to critical information on their go-to mobile devices, though they aren’t married to the idea of a single-purpose app, says CTO Cheryl Shelton. “We decided to go with an adaptive web design because an app doesn’t fit our culture,” she says. “We decided to build a robust website and make that work for mobile instead of limiting ourselves and wasting a lot of time keeping an app up to date.” 5.
Virtualization The march toward wholly virtualized IT environments rolls on.

Companies are virtualizing more than just desktop systems these days and are beginning to expand their efforts to areas like servers, networks, storage and even mobile infrastructure. Some form of virtualization will be on the docket for 29 percent of survey respondents in 2017, and of those who are planning hiring increases next year, 18 percent said they will be looking for people with expertise in virtualization. Desktop systems are still the most common targets of virtualization initiatives—16 percent of respondents to the Computerworld Forecast 2017 survey said they currently have desktop virtualization beta tests underway.
Storage is the second most common technology to be virtualized, with 11 percent of respondents saying they’re beta-testing such systems, followed by server virtualization (being beta-tested by 10 percent of those polled), mobile virtualization (8 percent) and network virtualization (7 percent). Roche Bros. has already gone all-in with virtualization, using the technology for desktops, servers, networks and storage, says Lauderbach. “Everything we have is already virtual,” he says. Similarly, the Edmonton city government has been pursuing infrastructure virtualization projects for years, says Rankin. “Virtualization keeps going and growing, but it’s not at a point anymore where it’s strategic—it’s just what we do,” he says. The year of the customer IT leaders are adopting and applying these five technologies with specific business outcomes in mind. One of the most important is customer satisfaction. Nearly half (48 percent) of the respondents to the Computerworld Forecast 2017 survey said improving customer satisfaction or the customer experience was the most important business priority for IT in the coming 12 months. That makes sense to Global Strategy Group’s Ho, whose goals for 2017 include improving the customer experience. “IT is here to serve the business; our business isn’t IT,” he says. “Customers and users are the ones that need to be happy and able to do their work well.

The way that happens is that we make their experience as great as possible.” This story, "5 key technologies to double down on now" was originally published by Computerworld.

IBM Watson steps into real-world cybersecurity

Watson is done with school -- for now -- and is ready to try out what it has learned in the real world. IBM has launched the Watson for Cyber Security beta program to encourage companies to include Watson in their current security environments.
Startin...

Unisys Unveils Digital Investigator™, an Advanced System to Help Law Enforcement...

Modernised system enables public safety agencies to share and analyse critical evidence while integrating social media and allowing citizens to provide information and track requestsLondon, October 18, 2016 – Unisys Corporation (NYSE: UIS) today announced the availability of the Unisys Digital Investigator™, a new total information management system to allow law enforcement agencies to seamlessly share critical investigative intelligence across applications and agency boundaries. The system, an upgraded version of a solution previously known as the Unisys Law Enforcement Application Framework, includes a public portal which enables citizens to provide information to law enforcement and public safety agencies and track requests from smartphones and other devices. It also integrates with social media analytics to assist in compiling digital evidence. The Unisys “Safe Cities” initiative provides tools and capabilities that can help prevent and combat crime. As a key tool in the Safe Cities portfolio, Digital Investigator goes beyond the capabilities of traditional records management systems to allow organisations to take advantage of information across technological and geographic boundaries. It provides the tools necessary to capture and analyse the increasingly varied and complex data law enforcement professionals need to catch criminals and stop criminal gangs and terrorists.“The Unisys Safe Cities initiative was created to give justice and public safety organisations the solutions they need to better use data from sources like mobile devices and the Internet of Things to create a safe environment for the public,” said Mark Forman, global head of public sector at Unisys. “Digital Investigator represents a critical component of this initiative. It gives police departments a tool set that improves productivity through the ability to handle numerous forms of data across multiple lines of inquiry while linking different pieces of related information.” When it comes to criminal investigations and intelligence handling, the use of data mining to identify suspects early has emerged as a critical challenge. With so much information available from different sources, law enforcement agencies are grappling with how best to collect, collate and analyse all pieces of evidence, including their movements through the justice system as well as their storage and destruction. Digital Investigator addresses this challenge by providing the capabilities needed to efficiently and successfully manage all police incident and investigative information, including: A device-independent public portal for information capture and delivery, enabling citizens to connect to law enforcement agencies to report missing persons, request appointments and receive updates to their requests; Social media analytics integration to stay on top of internet-derived intelligence from a vast array of sources; A single, browser-based application for total information management, tasking, collaboration and analytics; An easy-to-use and cost-effective tool for creating reports and other documents; Advanced search engine capabilities for rapid and relevant results; Certified ability to securely handle critical national security data; and On-premise and cloud-based deployment options. Digital Investigator is part of Unisys’ portfolio of Safe Cities solutions that also include LineSight™ for advanced targeting analytics related to border security; Unisys Stealth® for advanced security through micro-segmentation as well as identity management; the Unisys Law Enforcement Message Switch for enabling users to easily access disparate information from various federal and state criminal justice information systems; and the Secure Image Management Solution for capturing and aggregating stills imagery, video, audio, multimedia and disk images. About UnisysUnisys is a global information technology company that works with many of the world's largest companies and government organisations to solve their most pressing IT and business challenges. Unisys specialises in providing integrated, leading-edge solutions to clients in government, financial services and commercial markets. With more than 20,000 employees serving clients around the world, Unisys offerings include cloud and infrastructure services, application services, security solutions, and high-end server technology. For more information, visit www.unisys.com. Follow Unisys on Twitter and LinkedIn. Contacts:Brad Bass, Unisys, 703-439-5887brad.bass@unisys.com UK: Jay Jay Merrall-Wyre, Unisys, +44 (0) 20 3837 3729unisys@weareoctopusgroup.net ### Unisys and other Unisys products and services mentioned herein, as well as their respective logos, are trademarks or registered trademarks of Unisys Corporation. Any other brand or product referenced herein is acknowledged to be a trademark or registered trademark of its respective holder.

How to create a security startup and bag VC millions –...

Step two: Keep doing that While venture capitalists have been tightening their belts over the past year, there’s still a lot of love and funding for security startups – especially if you’re working in the right areas. During a panel discussion at the Structure Security conference in San Francisco today, a trio of top VCs identified three key areas where security startups would have no problems getting initial funding: cloud security, containerized protection, and machine learning – although that last area comes with caveats. Asheem Chandna, a partner at venerable VC firm Greylock Partners, and Theresia Gouw, managing partner at Aspect Ventures, both said they were investing heavily in cloud security outfits, since they matched the tech industry's ongoing movement to the cloud and the need for increased security budgets. “In the last two decades that I’ve been doing this there never been a better time to be in this [security] business,” Chandna said. “Look at how important it is to buyers and how the checkbooks are open. Most people expect security budgets to double in the next few years – it’s a good time to be an entrepreneur in the cloud space, but for customers it’s confusing.” The second area of interest among funders is containerization, and how it can be secured and used to protect data and applications.

Alex Doll, founder of Ten Eleven Venture, said it was an area his firm was spending a lot of time and money on. “When we look at containers it's as big a trend as Linux was a decade ago, or virtualisation was a few years ago,” he said. “We think the containers trend is a series-A level for investment funders.” Machine learning for security was also a hot area, he said, but warned it required care to train up AI models with high quality information – to sort the wheat from the chaff, in other words.

True machine learning systems in security are rare, and too many startups claim they are applying AI techniques when, in fact, they are simply running human-overseen data mining, and often coming to the wrong conclusions. Chandna said that VC funding for the broader IT area is shrinking slowly, as VCs winnow out the “me-too companies” and those without a realistic growth plan.

For security, there is still a lot of startup moolah out there for budding entrepreneurs to tap. But before you tell your boss he or she's a pillock and rush out to set up your own firm, be warned. While getting initial series-A funding is relatively easy, getting more funds out of VCs is getting a lot harder. “A-level funding is still easiest to raise,” Chandna said. “Series B is easier but valuations have come down.

But when it comes to Series C or D then firms need to show real progress and customer wins.

The cost of capital has gone up.” ®

Oliver Stone on the Snowden who graced Ars’ forums: “Now he’s...

Enlarge / Director Oliver Stone attends the Snowden New York premiere at AMC Loews Lincoln Square on September 13, 2016 in New York City.Getty Images / Jim Spellman reader comments 18 Share this story On the day the Oliver Stone film Snowden opened in theaters around the world, Mr.
Stone was kind enough to give Ars a call (in fact, a Facetime call) to talk about the film's creation. We had so many questions for Mr.
Stone about collaborating with Edward Snowden, how he thinks American warfare has changed, and how much of his film is based on a work of fiction. Here's a transcript of our Friday conversation, edited for flow and for Mr.
Stone's requested redactions. Ars: To start, I was curious: How much did your film draw from the forums of Ars Technica, where Edward Snowden was apparently a longtime member and commenter? Stone: Well, quite a bit of stuff [in my film] had not appeared [up until now].

There was a lot of information that only... let’s say no one really knew.

Bart Gellman [the British journalist who appeared in Citizenfour] told me that when he saw the film, he said, there’s stuff here no one knows.

And James Bedford [author of The Puzzle Palace], who I respect, they’ve been on the frontier of this, he said [classified programs] like Heartbeat, Epic Shelter—these things, nobody had talked about them. Sure, but those weren't mentioned on our forums.

But there were other stories, like injuries he sustained during basic training—not to mention some of the snarkier or more vulgar attitude that we saw on Ars' forums that didn't necessarily make it into the film.
We obviously tried to verify his stories.

Ed was a little elusive with us. He, you know, he made certain comments at Ars Technica that were pretty strong. We all know that.

Do you grant that? Strong sentiments, yeah. We tried to bring out quickly that side, that libertarian side of him, in the early part of the movie.

There's an argument with Lindsay Mills on the walk in the park in front of the White House, where you see him very devoted to getting revenge and going to Iraq at the most dangerous time. You understand the mentality, you can call it conservative, some would say libertarian. Well, libertarian doesn’t fit, because you wouldn’t join the army... Let’s put it this way: Ed was in a different place when we saw him. He was a different man than that young man.

That’s what this movie is about: the evolution of a consciousness. Your films in the past have focused on the issue of a major war machine in America, but with Snowden, the lens is focused perhaps differently: on America's transition to machine wars. What do you find has changed about the American military that this film reflects on in particular? You’re talking about the surveillance wars, the data mining that goes on.

That builds into drone attacks, and it builds into cyber warfare itself.
It comes from intricate knowledge of beings, you go in and hack them, sometimes cyber offensive weapons. [Snowden] was involved not only in taking down Chinese hackers but planting malware, he was one of those people. He saw the offensive side of cyber. He condemns it.
It’s fine to protect the United States.
It’s another to use a weapon offensively, which we did in Iran in 2007. We didn’t take credit, it’s classified, but we definitely used it.

That was when he pulled out.

That was the last straw, I think, when he pulled out of Hawaii, he just didn’t think it was right. His loyalty was to the Constitution, not to the NSA. So how do you feel that warfare has changed on a larger scale? Especially based on your perspective, having made a lot of films about American war for so many years. I know people scoff when I say it, but I’m a dramatist.
I try to follow the story as told to me by others, as it was felt by others.
I didn’t have an agenda here.
In the process I learned a lot.
It’s ironic that America is still doing the old-fashioned kind of war... what do they call it? Boots on the ground. We’re in Afghanistan and Iraq, advisors in Syria, Libya, and so forth. We have 800 bases, we have special commands in practically every country.
It’s still bodies, commandos, special forces.

That kind of army. There’s this other kind of army, there's a word for it, we accuse Russia of it all the time, the H war? Hybrid war, that’s it, that’s the new terminology from the Pentagon, what they accuse Russians of doing in Ukraine, and we’ve been doing it for dozens of years.
It’s a form of soft power, using cyber tools when necessary, propaganda, all kinds of information war to create disturbances in other countries.

That’s very powerful and continues to be the main form of attack.

For example, we’ll come in, start criticizing another dictatorship for killing off freedoms. We name that person week after week in the media, until that person becomes the center of, say, hate week, you know? We’re very good at creating that kind of enemy and building them up.
I call that hybrid warfare. We didn’t think of that kind of warfare when we were young.
It could lead to nuclear war, quite frankly. When we went into Iran and blew up their centrifuges, and they rebuilt them in 6-7 months, but no one knew what they were! There was a guy who broke the code, who understood what Stuxnet really was.

And not only what it was but who had launched it. My point being that here we are now in this present world, making accusations against other countries, "they hacked this, they did that," but it’s very hard to know.

But it takes time to know.

The nature of that war is so proxied, hiding, secret, not disclosing who the force is.

The DNC leaks could have come from an insider, nobody knows! It’s easy to blame an enemy.

That’s what’s changed, subtler warfare.
In the young days, it was a little more blunt, but as you look, you see a lot of soft hybrid warfare is going on. What relationship have you been able to discern between Snowden and the Kremlin? I have made it very clear, I don’t think there’s any relationship.
I don’t think he’s met anybody.
I’m sure they asked him in the first place when he first arrived if he had anything.
I don't think they know that they did.

But he wasn’t carrying information in Russia. He deleted it in Hong Kong. He made that very clear.

The movie mentions that twice. No spy that I know of, unless you know of one, in recent memory, has ever turned his information over to newspapers for free.

This was done out of patriotism, out of a desire to inform the people of the United States what their government was doing and to see for themselves.
In his mind, and mine too, his loyalty was to the Constitution. A recent New York Times report about the film's making said that you brought Snowden a bunch of American keepsakes. What was his response, and what did Snowden seem to miss the most about the United States? I'll have to read that.

Do you know [what we gave him]? I don't have the article handy.
I think there was a baseball cap?
I remember early on we brought him some DVDs of films I’d done so he could familiarize himself with that. Probably a baseball cap, yes. His needs are minimal. He’s not a materialist, I’ll tell you that. He probably spends most of his time behind a computer, like you. Having met him, how did you feel it was most important to humanize him in this film's portrayal? His relationship with Ms. Mills, which was marginalized by the press, was important to him.
It meant a lot to him. You have to realize that to do what he did, you have to turn away from your life completely.

The fact that he kept her in the dark for so long... he’s a human being, and that’s what the movie does, it humanizes him. You don’t do these things [to a loved one] coldly. Did Snowden have specific input on what should be in the film and how it should be told? A message that he wanted conveyed? He didn’t have any message that way. He just told us—in fragments, obviously, I went there nine times ultimately—how this kind of war came out.
It wasn’t like he ever said, "you’ve got to get this into the movie." He understood that the nature of drama is to condense. He wanted to be as helpful to us getting the facts as close as possible to the movies.
It was a story that took place over nine years.

This movie is just over two hours. Did he advise technically in any capacity? I’m a craftsman and a dramatist.
I tell a story that I think works for drama.

But the issues he addresses are crucial. You have to make sure the audience understands what’s going on, because the language is very thick.

The technical stuff was corrected by him.
It’s important to get the language right.
I mean, we don’t write about the NSA, we don’t know what they’re doing! There wouldn’t have been an Edward Snowden If they’d been more honest about things. How much of this film was based on the novel that is mentioned in the credits roll? Well, The Guardian was heavily involved in the story; one of the film's parallel plots involved The Guardian and the decision to publish this story.

The book, The Guardian owns the book, Luke Harding's Snowden Files, I believe.

At that time, being fresh material, it was not all correct, and it had several errors in it.

Those were corrected in the latest version that was published.
Snowden helped us with the corrected information, as well. No, I mean The Time of the Octopus, written by Snowden's Russian lawyer. How much of this film was based on that book? That book was a work of fiction. We didn’t have all of the facts right while in development.

There were long articles in Wired and Vanity Fair, they did a good job.

But we bought the book when we went to Russia in January 2014, because we didn’t know what direction this film was going to take. We didn’t know if Mr.
Snowden was going to collaborate with us.

Therefore, we could’ve done this film in a more fictional way with an alias, another name, an American dissident in Russia.

A whistleblower, taking refuge, and he’s interrogated in this book by a Russian lawyer.
It’s an interesting conversation they have about totalitarian states.

But it’s fiction.

After we got the cooperation of Mr. Snowden in June 2014, we went ahead with information based on his real life.

New EU rules promise 100Mbps broadband and free Wi-Fi for all

EnlargeEuropean Parliament reader comments 43 Share this story BRUSSELS—The European Commission has promised free Wi-Fi in every town, village, and city in the European Union, in the next four years. A new grant, with a total budget of €120 million, will allow public authorities to purchase state-of-the art equipment, for example a local wireless access point.
If approved by the the European Parliament and national ministers the cash could be available before the end of next year. The commission has also set a target for all European households to have access to download speeds of at least 100Mbps by 2025, and has redefined Internet access as a so-called universal service, while removing obligations for old universal services such as payphones. It also envisions fully deploying 5G, the fifth generation of mobile communication systems, across the European Union by 2025.

Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker made reference to many of these proposals while also promising to abolish roaming once and for all in his "State of the European Union" address on Wednesday morning. To do all this the commission has proposed a new law—the European Electronic Communications Code—which merges four existing telecoms Directives (Framework, Authorisation, Access, and Universal Service Directive); as well as an updated Regulation on the Body of European Regulators of Electronic Communications (BEREC); a Regulation to support local communities in providing free public Wi-Fi to their citizens; and an Action Plan to deploy 5G in the EU. The controversial copyright package was also formally unveiled. Many of the measures, although divisive, were expected due to a series of leaks.

The headline irritant is still the so-called Google tax—in fact a neighbouring rights provision that would allow publishers to charge aggregators for publishing snippets of their stories. A so called "YouTube rule" requiring intermediaries that store and provide access works uploaded by users to "use effective content identification technologies" to prevent availability of material for which they don’t have copyright is also in the proposed law. There are efforts to open up content to certain users, such as schools, universities, and public interest researchers.

A series of exceptions to the copyright rules would allow these entities to use material for teaching as well as text and data mining under specific circumstances.

Despite these many other exceptions, and a consultation on the subject, the so-called Freedom of Panorama exception—which allows filmmakers and photographers to include copyrighted public buildings and monuments in their work—was not included. Ars will bring you full coverage of the proposed changes later today. This post originated on Ars Technica UK