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password is a word or string of characters used for user authentication to prove identity or access approval to gain access to a resource (example: an access code is a type of password), which is to be kept secret from those not allowed access.

The use of passwords is known to be ancient. Sentries would challenge those wishing to enter an area or approaching it to supply a password or watchword, and would only allow a person or group to pass if they knew the password. In modern times, user names and passwords are commonly used by people during a log in process that controls access to protected computer operating systems, mobile phones, cable TV decoders, automated teller machines (ATMs), etc. A typical computer user has passwords for many purposes: logging into accounts, retrieving e-mail, accessing applications, databases, networks, web sites, and even reading the morning newspaper online.

Despite the name, there is no need for passwords to be actual words; indeed passwords which are not actual words may be harder to guess, a desirable property. Some passwords are formed from multiple words and may more accurately be called a passphrase. The terms passcode and passkey are sometimes used when the secret information is purely numeric, such as the personal identification number (PIN) commonly used for ATM access. Passwords are generally short enough to be easily memorized and typed.

Most organizations specify a password policy that sets requirements for the composition and usage of passwords, typically dictating minimum length, required categories (e.g. upper and lower case, numbers, and special characters), prohibited elements (e.g. own name, date of birth, address, telephone number). Some governments have national authentication frameworks that define requirements for user authentication to government services, including requirements for passwords.

Apple still hasn't been able to seal up keychain access hole for unsigned applications A security shortcoming in earlier versions of OSnbsp;X has made its way into macOS High Sierra despite an expert's best efforts to highlight the flaw.…
Researcher Patrick Wardle has discovered a critical vulnerability that allows an attacker to dump passwords in plaintext from the macOS Keychain.

The vulnerability is in macOS High Sierra, Sierra and El Capitan, and has yet to be patched.
Apple's Face ID has caused a stir -- but are biometrics really the best way to boost mobile security?
Rogue apps can exfiltrate all plaintext passwords, no master password required.
Rabbani found guilty, vows to appeal after resisting demand for iPhone, laptop passcodes Muhammad Rabbani, international director of human-rights non-profit CAGE, was today convicted under UK anti-terror law for refusing to unlock his iPhone and laptop for police when entering the country.…
The vulnerability lets an attacker steal the contents of a Keychain — without needing a password.
Oops, did someone forget to turn on 2FA? Deloitte, one of the world's "big four" accountancy firms, has fallen victim to a cyberattack that compromised sensitive emails.…
Researchers demo how deep neural networks can be trained to generate passwords better than the best password-cracking tools.
We're already used to the fact that complex cyberattacks use 0-day vulnerabilities, bypassing digital signature checks, virtual file systems, non-standard encryption algorithms and other tricks.
Sometimes, however, all of this may be done in much simpler ways, as was the case in the malicious campaign that we detected a while ago – we named it 'Microcin' after microini, one of the malicious components used in it.
The Equifax data breach saga so far, a Google HTTPS warnings paper, cryptocurrency mining at the Pirate Bay, and bringing machine learning to passwords are all discussed.
You can't pin the blame for this one on IBM.