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Tag: Practical Extraction and Reporting Language

Prominent scripting languages, once viewed as the future of programming by offering ease of use, have slipped in the monthly Tiobe index of language popularity. Only Python and JavaScript still have some momentum.Languages that have seen their fortu...
When it comes to which languages developers like and dislike, Stack Overflow has some insight.

Based on the languages developers tagged as those they would not like to work with in their Stack Overflow Jobs profiles, the company has found that Perl,...
For a decade, therersquo;s a question that just wonrsquo;t go away: Is the cloud killing open source? It still strikes up some emotions.Open source software has been the backbone of enterprise platforms for a long timemdash;remember the LAMP stack of Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP/Perl? But consuming open source software via the cloud could change open sourcersquo;s enterprise footprint.[ Are you ready for the container invasion? Learn how to get started with Kubernetes. | Keep up with the latest developments in cloud computing with InfoWorld's Cloud Computing newsletter. ]‘Freersquo; open source is not cheaper First of all, open sourcersquo;s no-cost attribute means less in the cloud. Public cloud providers will charge you for the time you use their cloud to access open source softwaremdash;or any software.To read this article in full or to leave a comment, please click here
As a junior network engineer at a university I wrote a lot of management scripts in Perl.  I had scripts to do things such as check switchport configurations and upgrade switch code.

Times have changed a lot since then.

The universityrsquo;s web server now runs in the cloud, rather than on my personal workstation, and Python hasnbsp;surpassednbsp;Perl  as the scripting language du jour. Network automation now has a major focus with Python as an extremely important tool.Today Irsquo;m going to show you how to use Python scripts hosted on the box and integrated into IOS.

This is far more powerful than my earlier-career scripts, and I have some simple examples for PCI compliance, Dynamic DNS ACL updates, and configuration validation.To read this article in full or to leave a comment, please click here
Go, Googlersquo;s open source, concurrency-friendly programming language, has soared to new heights with developers, cracking the top 10 in the Tiobe index of language popularity for the first time.With an all-time high rating of 2.363 percent, Go ranks as the 10th most popular programming language in this monthrsquo;s index, ahead of languages such as Perl, Swift, Ruby, and Visual Basic.

The Tiobe Programming Community index assesses language popularity using a formula based on frequency of searches for the languages in popular search engines such as Google, Bing, Baidu, and Wikipedia.[ Also on InfoWorld: Tap the power of Google's Go language. | The best Go language IDEs and editors. | Keep up with hot topics in programming with InfoWorld's App Dev Report newsletter. ]Tiobe called Gorsquo;s latest rise an important landmark and pondered what was next. “Is Go really able to join the big stars in the programming language world and leave languages such as JavaScript and Python behind? We will see.” The language was ranked in 55thnbsp;place in the index a year ago.

Gorsquo;s previous high score was a 2.325 percent rating in January, when it placed 13th.To read this article in full or to leave a comment, please click here
BACKRONYM also fixed, so pull the patch The Perl 5 database interface maintainers have issued an important patch for DBDmdash;MySQL: in some configurations it wasn't enforcing encryption.…
Google’s Go language was recently chosen as Tiobe’s programming language of 2016, based on its rapid growth in popularity over the year, more than twice that of runners-up Dart and Perl.

Tiobe’s language index is based on the “number of skilled engineers worldwide, courses, and third-party vendors,” using the results of multiple search engines.To read this article in full or to leave a comment, please click here(Insider Story)
Take a look at the Tiobe Programming Community Index -- an indicator of the popularity of programming languages -- and you'll see that Google's Go and, to a lesser extent, Dart and Perl are trending up.

The venerable C, however, is a language whose ...
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To benefit from using Maltego, come to SAS 2017 for intensive Digital Intelligence Gathering training from the experts who created the tool from scratch: there won’t be any questions that they can’t answer.
Updated freeradius packages that fix one bug are now available for Red HatEnterprise Linux 7. FreeRADIUS is a high-performance and highly configurable free RemoteAuthentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS) server, designed to allowcentralized authentication and authorization for a network.This update fixes the following bug:* Previously, the FreeRADIUS server exported symbols that were conflicting withsymbols defined in the libltdl library. When the FreeRADIUS server tried to opena connection to the MSSQL server using the rlm_sql_odbc interface and UnixODBCwas configured to use the FreeTDS library, the connection failed with thefollowing error message:"undefined symbol: get_vtable"This update renames the conflicting symbols. As a result, connections to MSSQLservers no longer fail in the described situation. (BZ#1394787)Users of freeradius are advised to upgrade to these updated packages, which fixthis bug. Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server (v. 7) SRPMS: freeradius-3.0.4-7.el7_3.src.rpm     MD5: 5e96632852397a55278fe7ad2409a29fSHA-256: 59509a3a66c6f70128580d87a3bf62c2f0d6d0ab85091993db83577756c2e27b   PPC: freeradius-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64.rpm     MD5: aaa2f1fe524aef8201e3772c173e2a34SHA-256: 0b688cafd42eeaa14d54e1e7f9546645d544ee475e9daadd1e02712abeeebcc0 freeradius-debuginfo-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc.rpm     MD5: af8723c15c2bfdacd412806d4ed706dcSHA-256: 858a8955723f9166bbeeda8612a57c56bdb7f8ab7634b37a434436ce50b3176b freeradius-debuginfo-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64.rpm     MD5: ccbbe1acbcc2f8d6ed89e1163a794e9bSHA-256: 51c4b41197d27cebb8d1ba4f37e4786ba7230eca75cbac931339646213e4cfc1 freeradius-devel-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc.rpm     MD5: 5711896014d5f0c4e3d4e3401efef6d3SHA-256: 4a1d7c00c22fca5e4b9e3d1e6c6d45792665729be9092b97384ca2215123864e freeradius-devel-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64.rpm     MD5: b34c5265db6b567b8afb1cd48f03f64aSHA-256: e73f1521821ba950dd37cf2770486d332f7559207d3085b8b2d607d27d8592eb freeradius-doc-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64.rpm     MD5: 3f37c3cdbb151bbc7dc67ab48d61e1a4SHA-256: 42c405e19145b88da6463a637b319abbbb29a6e1ec28044f7358a068d1371119 freeradius-krb5-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64.rpm     MD5: eec5c37d9a0ce12b10bbb2f05e9df053SHA-256: 924feb65d3def899c43fb9e87eeb88d56bee385cf7c4dd4dbd7a4f5ddcd28a3b freeradius-ldap-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64.rpm     MD5: 665c19ec33d00d18ee8b687c7a6dea4eSHA-256: cc745bc192933d19251695b3d2256f9e429852306ed95ad4937121bca2d2571e freeradius-mysql-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64.rpm     MD5: 9b2d94a819845f7bd16886e7bc0bf8ccSHA-256: ccb9084b9946b7f0d8cadeb206c8badeae04ac95dfcffd2058ee1ece636c337c freeradius-perl-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64.rpm     MD5: 2b0026f1992724a1377c724df6c120d5SHA-256: 9451a7592fa6c72e56a1996e682fe30b4d075eed3eb573f865313af961ab25e9 freeradius-postgresql-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64.rpm     MD5: 9c91489ddc979db2c0e40b243785fc1eSHA-256: 22587e4769f76e26e6cca92216cb2d6459dfd82c90b916dcbe2b89764f7bee1e freeradius-python-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64.rpm     MD5: 8c027857f0dbe9bdcaabbb6de55e46b5SHA-256: 7f6c1699bb3db9a8fb9a44abf400949513444590a44ba338e9325c1000f7ad6f freeradius-sqlite-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64.rpm     MD5: 73effd27c782ceaf261899457e274c6cSHA-256: 474a9099296e5bf94c27fb964daa30508d9f76c94155d47c1c3870d7e364a3d9 freeradius-unixODBC-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64.rpm     MD5: f0877c023811b0f7fcc9a546445e70e3SHA-256: 701b77c5ec0e64fa197be7d20c011ef79a6bad990c2fb6fb09aa99a70b341124 freeradius-utils-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64.rpm     MD5: 094f5cc85a92eaa7bac692a3e1fd0217SHA-256: c5ea975b4cc148c42d9ae3b00c0caa006afd3eab0f43a0813246401860240776   PPC64LE: freeradius-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64le.rpm     MD5: 5e0b1aa1289ffd43554db6275836c90bSHA-256: 07488616dfb9a8264cfc987103540d2dd5dfcc4abef53a2dc0f23c7e8f639bed freeradius-debuginfo-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64le.rpm     MD5: 7e8a996e8d2efdd7c8383a3609c9da14SHA-256: b6652380de08e05cb23871b6c196e6aaf5758f0e6a03569f7d21b9cc0a930158 freeradius-devel-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64le.rpm     MD5: f2bde27a58cb26df2a3564570e7f9d72SHA-256: 9d5ec51588136c246ac1bbd59786a0b08f906f37db5dcab0e699feeb5b1f662c freeradius-doc-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64le.rpm     MD5: 5ee5af5e721f4413b181f8bfec827f55SHA-256: 11355cb8f27d55198bb1ca9428464696d538ab0cb0c1e6d51e8fe3d49fbe1b13 freeradius-krb5-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64le.rpm     MD5: 7dd0647b8e3ed9eefd25e0df23db3d0eSHA-256: 9d5f61c648cc9b03dbfefa812a7154e2f85977e02400a45a0701dcb5811691ea freeradius-ldap-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64le.rpm     MD5: 5df80476f533797412b8ef8eac7fe692SHA-256: 84e2443b283cdbffdbe4235cab0c1ae92c9764381db43d010805954e3c2c780a freeradius-mysql-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64le.rpm     MD5: 56b856e3e0e8094641ed6897b11ed69cSHA-256: 86b7b33b399241b27023ff7c202b47fb50aa11b29169b7196d90341dcab0582e freeradius-perl-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64le.rpm     MD5: 435d2f14683a8f51aecc804915fd9942SHA-256: 9bb3cac21d49fb7c715debd28159db6cb7ea1007b1f1f6772586f05f4593c541 freeradius-postgresql-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64le.rpm     MD5: a71ffb8ed42f59e433a2082431f2fe4aSHA-256: 2deebc15e1bf41f9e6cd8da602d167992078e7276dc6a57deca23e15310f57f3 freeradius-python-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64le.rpm     MD5: 089e0d939a2c6ff7599cd8e40b312fd2SHA-256: bf87ab72234ed742862c845adf378c03b35457cc6cdfaafb8451b1aa42cd0a96 freeradius-sqlite-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64le.rpm     MD5: 59276f0ebe8cec373522d9b8872a6ca5SHA-256: 48ad2db3a6fb377ea34fd1b134038e55ebe2bab56103d552fa9844d43ae57bf5 freeradius-unixODBC-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64le.rpm     MD5: f341c876508f64042ff9362a8677bd7bSHA-256: 67279b74e6698fcc2c5fa374c376fbfc2d11481a4bf6c989980fb4d7f98cea3f freeradius-utils-3.0.4-7.el7_3.ppc64le.rpm     MD5: 02d68a6b80678a76c9bcc57605be1e92SHA-256: e7df4369f9d61f3070299cb38581633084f9cc4e5ad4bd6974693443c0177892   s390x: freeradius-3.0.4-7.el7_3.s390x.rpm     MD5: 52bae7512435f85815620a39b6a23d0cSHA-256: c7ac534e0457ab9a36d1caff3c087868c3d4fd342c21ca434ce8665108fca58d freeradius-debuginfo-3.0.4-7.el7_3.s390.rpm     MD5: dc5025ddebe7a513846b3e0462f8603cSHA-256: e5474d9dde2ab8477c154b5399dc78d9aaaf4585b5a6d2938a0d2ae2b9a93fe1 freeradius-debuginfo-3.0.4-7.el7_3.s390x.rpm     MD5: 53e7b991142eab1a164767974d75caf3SHA-256: 1997c44040831b5b284f218ae485264ed52c822f86b07ca087028d6757514b48 freeradius-devel-3.0.4-7.el7_3.s390.rpm     MD5: fe3fbd2d654bfc1b128e68a06f069553SHA-256: 0db215de1770b8208649656b01983cb0d1521907b791a3e85bd5ea4383f37303 freeradius-devel-3.0.4-7.el7_3.s390x.rpm     MD5: 25698d6d169d6f82be0c8aa190efbfa2SHA-256: f58348d68c3203f84c6f6e85f68568d8081cb7a227eac2dc110436ded1cf1d7f freeradius-doc-3.0.4-7.el7_3.s390x.rpm     MD5: 39997fd4ccfde71b7717f18c41903697SHA-256: 2a8d8c80d4bb858276abf3cbf1af0995d34103c4d18cf8f55a7b80fe35badb06 freeradius-krb5-3.0.4-7.el7_3.s390x.rpm     MD5: ff536e3183408bc8a4ca37bd778ea3e4SHA-256: 5074472cdce0cfaedfaf24e5cea1ec565c1aadc693cca11ff10ac2b02c8e7469 freeradius-ldap-3.0.4-7.el7_3.s390x.rpm     MD5: 0f3aef5fb8d1ec941df5e6e18fcf6b57SHA-256: 3e03e2fbddfba25cc8432dbb363756aa513f749f1366786e92b495e92571896d freeradius-mysql-3.0.4-7.el7_3.s390x.rpm     MD5: 257cf4050b4681014e9ad1ede2c87d34SHA-256: f4e068f6e8df09d9d531cf814c82dedd661d1bea447c78d97f48260566eaeb90 freeradius-perl-3.0.4-7.el7_3.s390x.rpm     MD5: 28f0f21be0e8bed2047899eefaff1775SHA-256: d03d3ec074f3babe3c7f3763330a8879e170b8b0b596c9302932a8bf53d8aab4 freeradius-postgresql-3.0.4-7.el7_3.s390x.rpm     MD5: 065ad49d500e22359039caf24bc018ceSHA-256: cc1e6be66254c7fee8856510b0ca3a3b95f05ac008298b6acabf7b9e93cc9210 freeradius-python-3.0.4-7.el7_3.s390x.rpm     MD5: 69f69efd265f4f43f2015262f9516f26SHA-256: b6cc0eb3ff8674e0b01834641bb70fb5daa11878f5088e0e3691a7d361a83fba freeradius-sqlite-3.0.4-7.el7_3.s390x.rpm     MD5: db9ce18d2a37b07f2882d5ac8a2c588eSHA-256: dd731a73e9374a74d8ff687ec9b97e2ae7da3240da11d061a8b0f3cb0a9a0b99 freeradius-unixODBC-3.0.4-7.el7_3.s390x.rpm     MD5: 4f1f259eebf9416466e1475cccb489e3SHA-256: f8b779092fab55a4998e9f5d2b3770794e0a1802eff155f70f390e769a30d57a freeradius-utils-3.0.4-7.el7_3.s390x.rpm     MD5: 0a592741e5dde60ae6af76025702f4a8SHA-256: 188580afdbde07c0ed96dce567469265839cb40aeccb765e7bf33368d06c8be2   x86_64: freeradius-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: 324cd05f4175873056337301f5db3f3cSHA-256: 927a28600dfae5f3e469397e86c4cb1d07f8aff07c61485e723c865a1ba3d28a freeradius-debuginfo-3.0.4-7.el7_3.i686.rpm     MD5: 793281bdb20ce03387f32d67064467f8SHA-256: 91b7bb6fa4db6a526999075cefa33e6ec926f250ac9018dffe31322711bb513b freeradius-debuginfo-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: b066afb30956a2d756d1dada28987ca3SHA-256: c27eecb51018235c2953922d92b74fe179b564d69ac724a0af1914250b04475f freeradius-devel-3.0.4-7.el7_3.i686.rpm     MD5: 5b287335d4ffd19370f94de6e46c5c08SHA-256: 6f1113ce0bdd687ce87b031a53f7a51323ee88ccd9d0fe4fa60607143b1506b8 freeradius-devel-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: a012dea189d9cd4a934af530ba72cebeSHA-256: 62bf24ca618b1570c4a542260beb765cf831a8710d913b4cfee1b23b294862db freeradius-doc-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: 7de564b3f0a1c0746459b0d76f4c8196SHA-256: 8c46cbf09bf6a8c7c259c7a671018b40e8fee8fc72fe179dce3d6230666b7695 freeradius-krb5-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: 02b8e1aba5226b78631f8a25eab07594SHA-256: 5a380b1b428df3e9be595910d134026ccfc521d0983477ee3c1d2f9cae60aaa9 freeradius-ldap-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: 4bf09d747577ce1dda88437b17c086eeSHA-256: 8da7c2c2f7406a0cf23a396a50b29af8793d3055681017158fa290ae24280761 freeradius-mysql-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: caf7093d2d0709de3ec9f21a4858b114SHA-256: 7617d687aa3d7b57bf0fc5ad713783431568366de91c7ca7047b2c633d0305ef freeradius-perl-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: 0fd95f2575032c3583b225234ef06b1cSHA-256: 57fe0f68e18003307aa6ea14ec31175e3d71ed98f74e827d6a8569ce73816b01 freeradius-postgresql-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: 7ae05ec955cc1e33ac1b413250eafe15SHA-256: d60bce13100991ada442e837354a4991d7f37d4490f196a786057d6247ceaca2 freeradius-python-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: d65447e7d8d2b01847e10ecb89410dc1SHA-256: bbc0a3e3311b6799c952ae5161724af957025a0e15cdf815d16e104f24092c79 freeradius-sqlite-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: 3cbec77f072cc1b2217fd3a90e80a073SHA-256: 95250b415e278dbd7e4dd180d3139d188ac5ce5701f8fd4a28b2ba0ae381b7af freeradius-unixODBC-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: f35bb9c0457b1e07a55445c2c8f0a664SHA-256: ba5f154ce7cafd8e4074e644c73d27e2c669504bb394bcb38e490458dcc4789f freeradius-utils-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: a92a44d1daa697c379a8964dfd593983SHA-256: 945e3cdd8d9ed66857f7982c2a58a627ff607e0c4f4c926a316fcef6395f5074   Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server TUS (v. 7.3) SRPMS: freeradius-3.0.4-7.el7_3.src.rpm     MD5: 5e96632852397a55278fe7ad2409a29fSHA-256: 59509a3a66c6f70128580d87a3bf62c2f0d6d0ab85091993db83577756c2e27b   x86_64: freeradius-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: 324cd05f4175873056337301f5db3f3cSHA-256: 927a28600dfae5f3e469397e86c4cb1d07f8aff07c61485e723c865a1ba3d28a freeradius-debuginfo-3.0.4-7.el7_3.i686.rpm     MD5: 793281bdb20ce03387f32d67064467f8SHA-256: 91b7bb6fa4db6a526999075cefa33e6ec926f250ac9018dffe31322711bb513b freeradius-debuginfo-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: b066afb30956a2d756d1dada28987ca3SHA-256: c27eecb51018235c2953922d92b74fe179b564d69ac724a0af1914250b04475f freeradius-devel-3.0.4-7.el7_3.i686.rpm     MD5: 5b287335d4ffd19370f94de6e46c5c08SHA-256: 6f1113ce0bdd687ce87b031a53f7a51323ee88ccd9d0fe4fa60607143b1506b8 freeradius-devel-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: a012dea189d9cd4a934af530ba72cebeSHA-256: 62bf24ca618b1570c4a542260beb765cf831a8710d913b4cfee1b23b294862db freeradius-doc-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: 7de564b3f0a1c0746459b0d76f4c8196SHA-256: 8c46cbf09bf6a8c7c259c7a671018b40e8fee8fc72fe179dce3d6230666b7695 freeradius-krb5-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: 02b8e1aba5226b78631f8a25eab07594SHA-256: 5a380b1b428df3e9be595910d134026ccfc521d0983477ee3c1d2f9cae60aaa9 freeradius-ldap-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: 4bf09d747577ce1dda88437b17c086eeSHA-256: 8da7c2c2f7406a0cf23a396a50b29af8793d3055681017158fa290ae24280761 freeradius-mysql-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: caf7093d2d0709de3ec9f21a4858b114SHA-256: 7617d687aa3d7b57bf0fc5ad713783431568366de91c7ca7047b2c633d0305ef freeradius-perl-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: 0fd95f2575032c3583b225234ef06b1cSHA-256: 57fe0f68e18003307aa6ea14ec31175e3d71ed98f74e827d6a8569ce73816b01 freeradius-postgresql-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: 7ae05ec955cc1e33ac1b413250eafe15SHA-256: d60bce13100991ada442e837354a4991d7f37d4490f196a786057d6247ceaca2 freeradius-python-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: d65447e7d8d2b01847e10ecb89410dc1SHA-256: bbc0a3e3311b6799c952ae5161724af957025a0e15cdf815d16e104f24092c79 freeradius-sqlite-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: 3cbec77f072cc1b2217fd3a90e80a073SHA-256: 95250b415e278dbd7e4dd180d3139d188ac5ce5701f8fd4a28b2ba0ae381b7af freeradius-unixODBC-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: f35bb9c0457b1e07a55445c2c8f0a664SHA-256: ba5f154ce7cafd8e4074e644c73d27e2c669504bb394bcb38e490458dcc4789f freeradius-utils-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: a92a44d1daa697c379a8964dfd593983SHA-256: 945e3cdd8d9ed66857f7982c2a58a627ff607e0c4f4c926a316fcef6395f5074   Red Hat Enterprise Linux Workstation (v. 7) SRPMS: freeradius-3.0.4-7.el7_3.src.rpm     MD5: 5e96632852397a55278fe7ad2409a29fSHA-256: 59509a3a66c6f70128580d87a3bf62c2f0d6d0ab85091993db83577756c2e27b   x86_64: freeradius-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: 324cd05f4175873056337301f5db3f3cSHA-256: 927a28600dfae5f3e469397e86c4cb1d07f8aff07c61485e723c865a1ba3d28a freeradius-debuginfo-3.0.4-7.el7_3.i686.rpm     MD5: 793281bdb20ce03387f32d67064467f8SHA-256: 91b7bb6fa4db6a526999075cefa33e6ec926f250ac9018dffe31322711bb513b freeradius-debuginfo-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: b066afb30956a2d756d1dada28987ca3SHA-256: c27eecb51018235c2953922d92b74fe179b564d69ac724a0af1914250b04475f freeradius-devel-3.0.4-7.el7_3.i686.rpm     MD5: 5b287335d4ffd19370f94de6e46c5c08SHA-256: 6f1113ce0bdd687ce87b031a53f7a51323ee88ccd9d0fe4fa60607143b1506b8 freeradius-devel-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: a012dea189d9cd4a934af530ba72cebeSHA-256: 62bf24ca618b1570c4a542260beb765cf831a8710d913b4cfee1b23b294862db freeradius-doc-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: 7de564b3f0a1c0746459b0d76f4c8196SHA-256: 8c46cbf09bf6a8c7c259c7a671018b40e8fee8fc72fe179dce3d6230666b7695 freeradius-krb5-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: 02b8e1aba5226b78631f8a25eab07594SHA-256: 5a380b1b428df3e9be595910d134026ccfc521d0983477ee3c1d2f9cae60aaa9 freeradius-ldap-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: 4bf09d747577ce1dda88437b17c086eeSHA-256: 8da7c2c2f7406a0cf23a396a50b29af8793d3055681017158fa290ae24280761 freeradius-mysql-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: caf7093d2d0709de3ec9f21a4858b114SHA-256: 7617d687aa3d7b57bf0fc5ad713783431568366de91c7ca7047b2c633d0305ef freeradius-perl-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: 0fd95f2575032c3583b225234ef06b1cSHA-256: 57fe0f68e18003307aa6ea14ec31175e3d71ed98f74e827d6a8569ce73816b01 freeradius-postgresql-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: 7ae05ec955cc1e33ac1b413250eafe15SHA-256: d60bce13100991ada442e837354a4991d7f37d4490f196a786057d6247ceaca2 freeradius-python-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: d65447e7d8d2b01847e10ecb89410dc1SHA-256: bbc0a3e3311b6799c952ae5161724af957025a0e15cdf815d16e104f24092c79 freeradius-sqlite-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: 3cbec77f072cc1b2217fd3a90e80a073SHA-256: 95250b415e278dbd7e4dd180d3139d188ac5ce5701f8fd4a28b2ba0ae381b7af freeradius-unixODBC-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: f35bb9c0457b1e07a55445c2c8f0a664SHA-256: ba5f154ce7cafd8e4074e644c73d27e2c669504bb394bcb38e490458dcc4789f freeradius-utils-3.0.4-7.el7_3.x86_64.rpm     MD5: a92a44d1daa697c379a8964dfd593983SHA-256: 945e3cdd8d9ed66857f7982c2a58a627ff607e0c4f4c926a316fcef6395f5074   (The unlinked packages above are only available from the Red Hat Network) These packages are GPG signed by Red Hat for security. 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Suits should have done more to protect users, rather than user numbers ANALYSIS Fallen web giant Yahoo! has been branded negligent for failing to tackle the prodigious challenge of upgrading its MD5 password security before some one billion accounts were stolen. The security-battered organisation revealed today that attackers had stolen more than a billion accounts in August 2013 in history's biggest breach. Hackers stole names, addresses, phone numbers, and MD5 hashed passwords in a coup for social engineers who could use the information to compromise the very identity of users. That eye-watering news followed the company's September admission that 500 million accounts had been stolen in seperate attacks by alleged state-sponsored hackers in 2014, an incident that came two years after staff became first aware of the hack. Yahoo! has since replaced its MD5 hashing with the far superior bcrypt, moving from the world's worst password protection mechanism to the best. Yet it is little comfort for those who use legitimate personal details when signing up to Yahoo!'s service, including scores of American subscribers to major cable and DSL telcos including AT&T which use Yahoo! for its default email services, along with Kiwi carrier Spark which ditched the service in September. It is not known if the MD5 hashes were salted, since Yahoo! did not mention the critical additive in its statement.

Doing so would mitigate much risks from using MD5, says Jeffrey Goldberg, security guru at AgileBits, makers of the 1Password credential vault. "What is most important is whether the hashes, be they MD5, SHA1, or SHA256, are salted," Goldberg says. "There is absolutely no excuse to use unsalted hashes." But that the Purple Palace was even using the algorithm has drawn steep criticism from established security boffins. "The MD5 hashing algorithm has been considered not just insecure, but broken, for two decades," says Ty Miller, director of Sydney-based security firm Threat Intelligence, noting that MD5 collision vulnerabilities were found in 1996 with practical attacks developed in 2005. "I consider it negligent of an organisation such as Yahoo!, which has an obligation to protect the private data of over one billion users, to be using such an outdated and ineffective control to protect the passwords of its customers." The gossamer thin algorithm is a joke in security circles. Rainbow table databases serve as directories that transform hashes into cleartext passwords, and the internet is now littered with free and paid services that can reveal logins within seconds. Image: Kenneth White David Taylor, principal security consultant with Perth-based Asterisk Information Security, offered a similar opinion: "Yes, it would be pretty poor form on their part [to be] still using MD5 for hashing in 2013," he says. "There has been numerous issues reported for MD5 dating back to the mid 2000s." Board director with the lauded Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) Andrew van der Stock, also chief technology officer at Threat Intelligence, is an advocate of baking security into the development process and sees shortcomings in Yahoo!'s security models. "This breach clearly shows that Yahoo!'s previous approach to security was less than ideal, and it's obvious that the Paranoids (Yahoo!'s security team) were unable to move the needle sufficiently with management to upgrade password hashing from an outdated and insecure algorithm to something more modern and acceptable," he says. "That it (MD5) is still commonly found in many of the worst breaches is an indication that the continued use of MD5 is correlated with other poor security practices." The breach comes at a notably poor time for Yahoo!: The company will soon be acquired by Verizon, possibly at a damaged-goods discount, and is conducting a security recruitment drive in Australia in a bid to attract local security talent, van der Stock says. "We all understand that without a complete revamp of senior management support for security and alignment with customer desires for privacy and security of their data, there is no point in taking on a position at Yahoo!," he says. Take this with a pinch of salt Administrators were salting password hashes in the 1980s, but many still fail to apply the complexity additive today.

The cryptography measure introduces random data into one-way functions preventing the use of rainbow tables by ensuring identical passwords have unique hashes. Goldberg points to the 2012 breach at LinkedIn to demonstrate the importance of salting, something the security boffin wrote about at the time. "LinkedIn had used SHA1, an improvement over MD5 in general, but it really didn’t matter that it was SHA1 instead of MD5," Goldberg tells The Register. "What mattered is that it was not salted.
I argued in 2012 that it was irresponsible for LinkedIn to have used unsalted hashes, and so that certainly applies to Yahoo! using unsalted hashes in 2013, if indeed, their hashes were unsalted." Put simply, a bland salt-free password earns the "contempt" of Goldberg and his kin, while the use of slow hashes like bcrypt, PBKDF2, or the upcoming Argon2 wins their praise. Attackers can guess salted passwords, whereas bcrypt and friends slow the rate at which those guesses can be made. "With a simple cryptographic hash function [like] SHA256, MD5, etcetera, an attacker might be able to make 10 million guesses per second on a single hash.

But with the 'slow hashing' functions, that might be reduced to a few tens of thousands of guesses per second," he says. The decreased rate gives users a window to change their passwords; yet even that may not have helped Yahoo! "But after four years, the details of the hashing scheme don’t really matter.

Any guessable password will have been guessed by now," he says. Not easy Yahoo!, like so many other companies offering free technology services, wants to attract the highest possible number of subscribers and has been criticised for perceived attempts to kneecap fleeing users. That mindset may have dissuaded the company from more efficiently jettisoning MD5 hashing for passwords prior to the 2013 pillaging. "The only practical way to speed up the conversion process (to bcrypt) is to force a password reset, maybe across the board, but more likely on a web property by web property basis," says noted cryptologist and director of the Open Crypto Audit Project's Kenneth White. "And therein lies the problem: there is often a very real tension between the business to be able to claim the highest user count, versus the reality that a years-old email reminds millions of people to log in to an account they had long ago forgotten." Using Yahoo! to find Yahoo! MD5 hashes, here revealing 'Password1'.
Image: Ty Miller. An email shipped to users asking them to log in so their passwords may be upgraded from MD5 hashing to bcrypt risks a "virtually overnight mass exodus of users" and a social media complaint storm that sends more rats from the burning Palace, he says. Bcrypt is the powerful hashing function designed to slow decryption attempts while minimising legitimate use performance overheads, and is favoured, along with PBKDF2 (Miller prefers the latter with hashes bearing 100,000 iterations), by each of the security boffins The Register has spoken to for this story, and many more in the broader security community including OWASP . Yet migrating to the top notch function is not as simple as just "switching to bcrypt", White says. A bootstrapping process can be followed, but it requires users to log in for bcrypt or PBKDF2 to be called and saved to a new column. Moreover, White says Yahoo! is a patchwork of web properties bearing decades-old Perl, PHP, and C code and so cannot be compared to the ease of upgrading a purpose-built modern web app. "Consider the legacy managed business mail systems," White says. "The myriad e-commerce shopping cart apps, ad accounts, to say nothing of Flickr, Yahoo! IM, and the hundreds of millions of webmail users who hadn't logged in for years, and you begin to see the scope of the engineering challenge." Van der Stock, acknowledging his outsider's position, reckons Yahoo! should immediately deploy two factor verification for all of its services, and again reset passwords, noting that the use of mere usernames and passwords puts users at "serious risk" and that leaving accounts exposed would be a "serious breach of trust". yahoo pic.twitter.com/LSxdm1wNdx December 15, 2016 Yahoo! could take a leaf from Microsoft's Xbox Live endeavours and deploy similar authentication smarts, if it has not already done so. "… I would strongly recommend some sort of real time authentication intelligence around compromised accounts, so that the authentication system itself assigns a risk score to logins to ensure that unusual patterns of abuse, such as brute force attacks, logging in from a distant country, or popping out of multiple IPs is blocked or alerted to the user for further action." Burning questions remain, not least how it took the technology giant three years to disclose that such a massive share of its accounts have been breached. "It's baffling why it's taken so long to fully scope and disclose the extent of their breach," White says. ® Sponsored: Want to know more about PAM? Visit The Register's hub